Heat Transfer Properties of Hydrogen PeroxideExperimental heat transfer studies on 90 w/o H2O2 solutions (reported in Ref.1) indicated that a high flux heat transfer, usually associated with boiling, was obtained from a 347 stainless steel surface to liquid 90 w/o H2O2 as a result of the H2O2 decomposition mechanism. This decomposition, which simulates boiling by the liberation of gas bubbles at the heat transfer surface, is accelerated with temperature increase of the surface. Figure 2.24 illustrates the magnitude of this effect, as well as the lesser effect of pressure and liquid temperature, in terms of heat flux. Because of these effects, the study showed that the temperature difference between the surface and liquid was not significant. An extension of these studies to high fluid velocities and moderately high temperature differences was reported in Ref. 2. At high flowrates and high Reynolds numbers (where decomposition is limited by the short liquid residence time), the resultant heat transfer data agreed with that expected for forced convective heat transfer. It was found that heat fluxes as high as 11.75 Btu/sq in.-sec (at liquid velocities of ~ 80 ft/sec) could be obtained with 90 w/o H2O2 without complication by decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide. A least-square fit of the heat transfer data obtained on 90 w/o H2O2 resulted in the following expression: (NNu)f = 0.0287 (NRe)f0.8(NPr)f1/3 The standard deviation of the experimental data from this equation was 10.2 percent. Heat transfer properties of hydrogen peroxide studies in the forced convective region of both 90 w/o and 98 w/o H2O2 were reported in Ref. 3. Peak heat fluxes of 7.80 Btu/sq in.-sec were measured for 90 w/o H2O2 at fluid velocities of 41.3 ft/sec. The results obtained for peak heat flux of 98 w/o H2O2 at the conditions investigated are shown in Fig. 2.25. The correlation of the data on 98 w/o H2O2 with the Dittus-Boelter, Colburn, and Sieder-Tate equations (Fig. 2.26 through 2.28, respectively) indicated better agreement of the data with the Dittus-Bcelter relationship. It has been suggested, however, that some of the apparently low heat transfer coefficients, indicated by the correlations of Fig. 2.26 through 2.28, may be due to slight scaling (oxidation) of heat transfer surfaces.
A current study on the use of 98 w/o hydrogen peroxide for regenerativelv cooled rocket engines has reported (Ref. 4) that during 18 experimental tests (with fluid velocities from 25 to 198 ft/sec, pressures from 2000 to 4700 psia, and feed temperatures from 60 to 240 F), heat fluxes up to 48.2 Btu/sq in.-sec were achieved. It was found that the heat flux at burnout (under the conditions tested) was directly proportional to the fluid velocity by the relationship: heat fluxB0 = 0.21 x velocity. These results indicated good correlation of heat flux and fluid velocity with the studies of Ref. 2 and 3. During these tests, no appreciable difference in heat transfer could be associated with feed temperature, and no detectable decomposition was evident. Four similar tests with 90 w/o hydrogen peroxide indicated no discernible differences from the results of the 98 w/o hydrogen peroxide tests. As in the studies of Ref. 3, the Dittus-Boelter correlation was found to represent the data more closely than either the Colburn or Sieder-Tate relationships. The results of all of these studies have shown that hydrogen peroxide has coolant properties comparable to those of water. Of course, the difficulty in its use as a regenerative coolant lies in the limited stability of the H2O2 at higher temperatures. As a result, various bulk liquid temperature limits have been suggested and established in the use of H2O2 as a regenerative coolant. These limits range from established (Ref. 5) maximum allowable temperatures of 225 F (with a 105 F rise over inlet temperature) to suggested operating limits (Ref. 6) of 250 F (with red line conditions at 275 F). More detailed analysis of minimum safe design criteria of H2O2 regenerative-cooling systems, based on the available data from various sources, is presented in terms of ultimate heat flux and fluid velocity in Ref. 7. Additional analysis of transient heat transfer for an H2O2 regeneritively cooled engine modal is given in Ref. 8.
- Sanborn, C. E. , R. J. Baumgartner, G. C. Rood, and J. M. Monger, "Decomposition Heat Transfer to Liquid 90% Hydrogen Peroxide," Presented at the 6th National Heat Transfer Conference, A.I.Ch.E.-A.S.M.E., Boston, Massachusetts, August 1963, A.I.Ch.E. Preprint 20.
- Sanborn, C. E. , H. J. Baumgartner, G. C. Hood, and J. M. Monger, "Convective Heat Transfer to Liquid 90% Hydrogen Peroxide at High Heat Flux," Presented at the 6th National Heat Transfer Conference, A.I.Ch.E.-A.S.M.E., Boston, Massachusetts, August 1963, A.I.Ch.E. Preprint 21.
- Studies done by Pratt and Whitney, as reported by James McCormick, Hydrogen Peroxide Rocket Manual FMC Corporation, Buffalo, New York, 1965.
- AGC 10785-Q3, Quarterly Report, Advanced Propellant Staged-Combustion Feasibility Program Aerojet-General Corporation, Sacramento, California, June 1966, Contract AF04(611)-10785.
- Private communication, F. Hoffman, FMC Corporation, to M. T. Constantine, Rocketdyne.
- Private communication, J. McCormick, FMC Corporation, to M. T. Constantine, Rocketdyne.
- Van Huff, N. E. and D. C. Rouser, "Ultimate Heat Flux Limits of Storable Propellants," Aeroject-General Corporation, Sacramento, California, as presented to the CPIA 8th Liquid Propulsion Symposium, Cleveland, Ohio, November 1966.
- AFRPL-TR-66-263, Special Report, Advanced Propellant Staged Combustion Feasibility Program, Aeroject-General Corporation, Sacremento, California, August 1966, Contract (AF04(611)-10785.