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Electromagnetic Properties of Hydrogen Peroxide

hydrogen peroxide Propulsion

Chemistry-02 Part of the Hydrogen Peroxide Propulsion Guide The electrical, magnetic, and electromagnetic (optical) properties of H2O2 have been grouped as electromagnetic properties. These properties are generally related to the electronic structure of the atoms in contrast to the transport properties which involve only molecular movement. Index of Refraction The data for propellant-grade H2O2-H2O solutions are presented in Table 2.15 at 25 C (77 F) with a temperature correction guide. refractive index (sodium d-line) of propellant grade hydrogen peroxide solutions at 25 C   table_2.15_continued Dipole Moment Calculated dipole moments of H2O2 were reported as 2.22 Debye (or 2.22 x 10-18 esu-cm) and 2.05 Debye respectively. In addition, a value of 2.26 Debye was estimated from the Stark effect, and a value of 2.13 Debye was determined for H2O2 in dioxane. The latter value was selected as the representative dipole moment for H2O2. Dielectric Constant Figures 2.23 and 2.23a show the dielectric constants of propellant-grade H2O2-H2O solutions as a function of temperature. These data were interpolated from the experimental studies reported in Ref. 2.39, in which the dielectric constants were determined as a function of composition at constant temperatures from -40 to 30 C (-40 to 86 F). Because of the supercooling of the H2O2-H2O solutions, measurements were obtained on the liquid below the freezing point. The data from the measurements on 100 w/o H2O2 were curve-fitted from -60 to 30 C (-76 to 86 F) to the following equation: € = 84.2 - 0.62 T(C) + 0.0032T(C)2 Dielectric constant of propellant grade hydrogen peroxide water solutions   figure_2.23a Electrical Conductivity The conductivity of "pure" H2O2 has been reported by several investigators with values ranging from 2 to 0.39 micromhos (microohms-1 ). Experimental studies of the conductivity of unstabilized H2O2 were conducted as a possible means of determining its purity. The results of this study are summarized as follows:
  1. Fractional crystallization reduced the conductivity of commercial 90 w/o H2O2 (11.5 microohms-1 at 25 C) to approximately one-half (5.0 microohms-1 at 25 C) of its initial value, while increasing its concentration to 98+ w/o H2O2.
  2. Distillation of the crystallized H2O2 reduced its specific conductance to ~2 micromhos. This value compared with that reported in earlier studies.
  3. A second distillation of the crystallized and once distilled H2O2 reduced its specific conductance to 1.2 micromhos.
  4. The specific conductance of both 98 w/o H2O2 and de-ionized water increased on storage in contact with Pyrex glass. A conclusion of these studies indicated that only a rough correlation between low electrical conductivity and high stability was found (or that electrical conductivity per se is not a reliable indicator of stability).
The electrical conductivity of both water and hydrogen peroxide is increased by the addition of one to the other. Magnetic-Optic Rotation (Verdet Constant) Although not optically active, H2O2, when placed in a magnetic field, will rotate the plane of polarized light. This is expressed as: α = kvlH where α = degree of rotation l = path length H = field strength kv = Verdet constant The Verdet constant, kv, is shown for various H2O2-H2O solutions in Table 2.16. verdet constant of hydrogen peroxide water solutions at 10 C Magnetic Susceptibility Hydrogen peroixide is diamagnetic. Values of -9.73 X 10-6 cgs-emu/cc at 10 C, -0.50 x 10-6 cgs-emu/g, -17 x 10-6 cgs-emu/g mol, and 0.9999908 are reported for the volume susceptibility (K), mass susceptibility (Xg), molar susceptibility (Xm), and permeability (P), respectively. In addition, an equation expressing the mass susceptibility of H2O2-H2O solutions at 10 C (50 F) is given as: Xg 106 = -0.720 + 0.218 w where w = weight fraction H2O2 The susceptibility of the solid becomes more positive upon freezing, while the susceptibility of the vapor is assumed to be the same as the liquid. Other Molecular and Electromagnetic Properties A number of miscellaneous molecular and electromagnetic properties have been summarized for H2O2 in Table 2.17. molecular and electromagnetic properties of hydrogen peroxideImage cc Flickr via U.S. Department of Energy

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