Solubility and Miscibility of Hydrogen Peroxide

beakerPart of the Hydrogen Peroxide Propulsion Guide

Because of hydrogen peroxide’s chemical and thermodynamic activity, precautions should be observed when considering solutions of H2O2 with various organic and inorganic compounds. Although violent reactions upon mixing are the exception, such reactions have been observed. Many H2O2 solutions may be fairly stable when undisturbed but are subject to violent detonation under certain conditions. The addition of any material which may be oxidized or reduced should be suspect, particularly as the relative concentrations approach stoichiometric proportions. For these reasons, it is suggested that appropriate references be consulted in detail to define the chemical nature of the proposed solution as well as the solubility of the solute before solutions of H2O2 with other materials are attempted.

In general, concentrated H2O2 solutions are completely miscible with most organic liquids (including ethanol, isopropanol, acetone, ethyl cellosolve, pyridine, etc.) that are miscible with water in all proportions. In addition, hydrogen peroxide is more miscible than water in a number of organic materials, such as methyl methacrylate, dimethyl and diethyl phthalate, ethyl acetate, and aniline. Compounds with which hydrogen peroxide is nearly immiscible include petroleum ether, toluene, styrene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, kerosene, fuel oil, and gasoline.

Hydrogen peroxide and its aqueous solutions also possess, in general, solvent or solute relationships that are similar to water. The results of several experiments show that sodium fluoride, potassium nitrate, various potassium or sodium phosphates, potassium chloride, and sodium or potassium sulfate are more soluble in H2O2 than in water. Sodium nitrate, sodium chloride, silver nitrate, lead nitrate, and lithium nitrate and sulfate are less soluble in H2O2 than in water. Chlorine and iodine are only slightly soluble in anhydrous H2O2.

In consideration of the materials compatibilities of various lubricants with H2O2, the solubilities of several organic compounds in propellant-grade H2O2 are discussed in detail below.

Compatibility of 90% Hydrogen Peroxide with Potential Lubricants

Halogenated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

  • Polytetrafluoroethylene (solid)
  • Tctrafluorocthylene-hexafluoropyropyrlene copolymer (solid)
  • Polychiorotrifluoroethylene (molecular weight < 800)
  • Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (molecular weight > 800)
  • Perfluorokerosene
  • Dispersion of Polytetrafluoroethylene in Trichiorotrifluoroethane (solid)
  • Perchioropentacyclodecane (solid)
  • Perfluorodiethylcyclobcxane (mixed isomers)
  • Dichlorodecafluoroeptane
  • Chiorofluoro Hydrocarbon (approximate molecular weight 725)
  • Chiorofluoro Hydrocarbon (approximate molecular weight 1000)
  • Fluorinated Hydrocarbon (77.4 percent F; approximate molecular weight 640)
  • Polychlarotrifluoroethylene (approximate molecular weight, 775;
  • 80 percent halogens)

Silicon Compounds

  • Silicon Fluorides
  • Tri(p-trifluorozethyl phenyl) Silicon Fluoride
  • Trilaurysilicon Fluoride
  • Trio (3,5,5–trimetvll’exyl) Silicon Fluoride
  • Dimethylpolysiloxanes
  • Dimethylpolysiloxane (2 -to 500 Cs)
  • Fluoropolysiloxanes
  • HCF2 (CF3 )CH2O[Si(CH3)2O]nCH2(CF2)5(CF2H, Fluoropolysiloxane, n=1-26
  • Cyclic Fluorosiloxane (solid)
  • Fluorosiloxane Elastomer (solid) Made From CF3(CH2)2Si(CH3)C2
  • Mixed Cyclic Fluorosiloxane (solid)
  • Dimethylpolysiloxane-Cyclic
  • Fluoropolysiloxane Blends
  • Fluorosiloxane Grease (No. 33 + inorganic gelling agent)
  • Fluorosiloxane Grease (No. 34& + inorganic gelling agent)
  • Mixed Diwethylpolysiloxane and Cyclic Fluoropolysiloxane
  • Mixed Dimethylpolysiloxane (average molecular weight < previous compound)

Halogenated and Nonhalogenated Aromatic Hydrocarbons

  • 3-Heptyl-m-terphenyl
  • Isopropyl-m-terphenyl
  • Dinonylnaphthalene (mixed isomers)
  • 1,3-Bis (trifluoromethyl) Benazene
  • 2,3,5,6-Tetrachlorofluorobenzene (solid)
  • l,3,5-Trimethyl-2,4,6-Trifluorobenzene (solid)
  • 1,3,5-Trimethyl-2, 4-Difluorobenzene
  • Hexafluorobenezene
  • 2, 5-Dichchlorobenzotrifluoride
  • 2-Fluorobiphenyl (solid)
  • 3,3′-Difluorobiphenyl (solid)
  • 4,4′-Difluorobiphenyl (solid)
  • 3,6,4′-Trifluorobiphenyl (solid)

Esters

  • Mixed Fluoroalkyl Camphorates Fluoroallcyl-HCF (CF2)n CH- n =3,5,7
  • Bis-1H, 1H,5H-perfluoropentyl Camphorate
  • Bis-1H, 1H,11H-perfluoroundecyl Camphorate (solid)
  • Tetrabutyl Pyromellitate
  • Mixed Fluoroalkyl Pyromellitates
  • Bis (2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,-octafluoropentyl)3-methylglutarat
  • Bis (2,2,3,3,4 ,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,-dodecafluoroheptyl)3-methylglutarate
  • 2,2,3,3,4,4,-Hexafluoropentyl 1,5-bis (trimethyl acetate)
  • big(I-methylcyclohexylmethyl) Sebacate
  • Poly (1,1,5,5-tetrahydrohexafluoropentamethylene adipate)(solid)
  • Bis (2 -ethylhexyl) Chlorendate
  • Dibutyl Chlorendate

Nitrogen Compounds

  • Hexadecytriphenylurea
  • 2,2′-Dinitrophenyl Ether (solid)
  • 4,4′-Dinitrophenyl Ether (solid)
  • 2,b -Difluoro-3,5-dinitrochlorobenzene (solid)
  • 2,4-Dinitro-5-fluorobromobenzene (solid)
  • Perfluorotributylamine

Perfluoro Compounds

  • Polytetrafluoroethylene (solid)
  • Tetrafluoroetliylene-hexafluoropropylene Copolymner (solid)
  • Perfluorokerosene
  • Perfluorodiethylcyclohexane (mixed isomers)
  • Mixed Perfluorocyclic Ether, C8F16O (five- or six-miembered ring with side chain, oxygen in the ring)
  • Perfluorotributylamine
  • Perfluorodihexyl Sulfide
  • 4-Chloro-3,5-difluoronitrobenzene (solid)
  • 3,3′-Difluoro-4,4′-dimethoxybiphenyl (solid)

Ethers

  • Bis(m-phenoxyphenyl) Ether
  • I,4-bis(cresoxy) Benzene (mixed isomers)
  • CF3CF2O(CF2)2SF5
  • 2,2′-Dinitrodiphenyl Ether (solid)
  • 4,4′-Dinitrodiphenyl Ether (solid)
  • 4-Fluoro-6-methoxyacctanilide (solid)
  • 3,3′-Difluoro-‘4,4′-dimethoxydiphenyl Sulfoxide (solid)
  • 3,5-Difluoro-6-methoxyacetanilide (solid)
  • Mixed Perfluorocyclic Ether, C8F16 (five – or six-membered ring with side chain, oxygen in the ring)

Soluble in 90% Hydrogen Peroxide with no visible sign of reaction

  • 2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-Octafluorohexyl 1,6.-his (trimethylacetate)
  • 2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-Octafluorohexyl 1 ,6-bis (3,3-dimethylbutyrate)
  • Diethylene Glycol Succinate Polyester
  • Chlorotetraf luorobenzotrifluoride
  • p-bis(m-trifluoromethylphenoxy) Benzene

Partly Miscible

  • 2,4,6,3′,5′ Pentafluorobiphenyl (10 percent decrease in volume)
  • 3,3′ Difluoro-6,6′ dimethoxybiphenyl (solid; 20 percent decrease in volume)
  • p-chlorobenzotrifluoride (20 percent decrease in volume)

Some Color Change

  • Bis(p-phenoxyphyenyl) Ether (solid)
  • 3, 5-Difluoronitrobenzene

Gelled on mixing

Tetrachlorodiphenyl Ether (solid)

Image cc Flickr via Move the Clouds